Elizabeth II – Important Facts/ Elżbieta II – Ważne Pytania

31 Sty

1.        Which Monarch, starting from William the Conqueror, is Elizabeth II? 

40th – The Queen is Head of State of the UK and 15 other Commonwealth realms. The elder daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and was born in 1926. She became Queen at the age of 25, and has reigned through more than five decades of enormous social change and development. The Queen is married to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and has four children and eight grandchildren. Her Majesty is 38th in direct line of descent from Egbert (c. 775-839), King of Wessex from 802 and of England 827 to 839.  She is the fortieth monarch since William I (William the Conqueror), and also the great-great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria.

2. Who were Her Majesty’s parents?

Duke and Duchess of York – The Queen was born at 2.40am on 21 April 1926 at 17 Bruton Street in Mayfair, London W1. She was the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, who later became King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. At the time she stood third in line of succession to the throne after Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII), and her father, The Duke of York. But it was not expected that her father would become King, or that she would become Queen.

3.        Where were Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret Rose moved to during the height of the blitz in 1940?

Windsor Castle – In 1940, at the height of the blitz, the young princesses were moved for their safety to Windsor Castle, where they spent most of the war years. It was a time of austerity and anxiety for the whole country, including the Royal Family. But at Christmas time there was a period of light relief when the young princesses put on pantomimes with the children of members of staff for the enjoyment of her family and employees of the Royal Household.

4.        In 1942, Princess Elizabeth was appointed what?

Colonel-in-Chief of the Grenadier Guards – In early 1942 Princess Elizabeth was appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Grenadier Guards, and on her sixteenth birthday she carried out her first public engagement, when she inspected the regiment. In April 1943, Princess Elizabeth carried out her first solo public engagement, when she spent a day with a Grenadier Guards tank battalion in Southern Command. From that time onwards, her official duties increased. She was particularly involved with organisations connected with young people. She was President of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children in Hackney, London, and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

5.        What year was Princess Elizabeth created a Lady of the Garter at a private investiture by the king?

1947 – Her first official overseas visit took place in 1947, when she accompanied her parents and sister on a tour of South Africa. During this tour she celebrated her twenty-first birthday, and gave a broadcast address dedicating herself to the service of the Commonwealth – a dedication she repeated five years later on her accession to the throne. In November 1947, Princess Elizabeth was created a Lady of the Garter at a private investiture by the King. In a broadcast on her 21st birthday, Princess Elizabeth made a vow dedicating herself to service of the Commonwealth: „I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong.”

6.        Where was Her Majesty when she learned that she had become Queen of Great Britain?

Kenya – After her marriage in 1947, Princess Elizabeth paid formal visits with the Duke of Edinburgh to France and Greece, and in autumn 1951 they toured Canada. Princess Elizabeth also visited Malta four times while Prince Philip was stationed there on naval duties, and enjoyed the life of a naval wife and young mother.This way of life was not to last long, as her father’s health was deteriorating. In 1952, King George VI’s illness forced him to abandon his proposed visit to Australia and New Zealand. The Princess, accompanied by Prince Philip, took his place. On Wednesday, 6 February 1952, Princess Elizabeth received the news of her father’s death and her own accession to the throne, while staying in a remote part of Kenya. The tour had to be abandoned, and the young Princess flew back to Britain as Queen. She was greeted by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and other officials at the airport.

7. Who was Her Majesty’s first Prime Minister?

Winston Churchill – From the earliest days, the Queen took up her new role with energetic commitment.Political duties began immediately, from the State Opening of Parliament to weekly audiences with the prime minister. The first prime minister of The Queen’s reign was Winston Churchill, who had begun his second term as prime minister in November 1951.During the decade the Queen had occasion to exercise her Royal prerogative, appointing Harold Macmillan as prime minister in 1957. At that time, the Conservative Party did not have any electoral machinery for choosing a new leader, and the Queen acted on the advice of government ministers, and above all, of the outgoing prime minister.

 8. Where did Her Majesty go on her first regional tour?

Northern Ireland – The Queen took her role as Queen of the whole of the United Kingdom seriously. She began a wide-ranging programme of visits throughout every part of the country. Her first regional tour was a three-day visit to Northern Ireland. In the same decade The Queen travelled north, south, east and west, from Shetland to the Isles of Scilly, and from Swansea to Holy Island.

9. In what year was a public gallery opened at Buckingham Palace to display items from the Royal Collection?

1962 – The second decade of the Queen’s reign saw the introduction of a number of innovations to make the work of the monarchy accessible to an even wider range of people.In 1962 a public gallery was opened at Buckingham Palace to display items from the Royal Collection. The brainchild of the Duke of Edinburgh, the new Queen’s Gallery proved very popular.

10. In what year did Her Majesty help the United States celebrate its Bicentennial?

1976 – In 1976, Her Majesty made a state visit to the U.S.A. to celebrate its Bicentennial. Don’t get 1976 confussed with 1776, like President Bush did during the Queen’s state visit in May of 2006.

11. When Princess Elizabeth was 19 she was allowed to join the Women’s Auxiliary Territorial Services and was trained to do war work. After she passed the course what job was she qualified to do?

car mechanic – She entered as Second Subaltern Elizabeth Windsor, rising to the rank of Junior Commander. This was a wonderful opportunity, the first she had ever had, for the Princess to mix with girls of a different class from her own. She attended daily and became a skilful driver. To this day she can fix a car with the best of them.

12. On VE day there was great rejoicing all over London. The King, Queen and Princesses were at Buckingham Palace. How did Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret celebrate victory?

They joined the crowds and danced in the street. – It must have taken quite a bit of wheedling and negotiation, but the King allowed them to join the crowds in front of the palace. They were accompanied by two guards officers, their French governess Madame deBellaigue and their uncle David Bowes-Lyon. They danced with the others and knocked hats off people. At one point the crowd started shouting that they wanted the King, but the King and Queen did not come out on the balcony. The girls sent a note into the palace asking if their parents could possibly come out again. They did and the crowd went wild. Both the Queen and Princess Margaret in separate interviews said it had been one of the most magical evenings of their lives.

13. After the war the King, Queen and the Princesses went abroad on a state visit. While there, Princess Elizabeth broadcast a vow to all her future subjects in Britain and the Commonwealth. From which country was this vow broadcast?

South Africa – She promised that her whole life would be devoted to their service. Even after the Queen had been on the throne for over 50 years she was still living up to this vow.

14. Back in London, plans went ahead for the wedding of Princess Elizabeth to Prince Philip of Greece. Where was the wedding to be held and on what date?

November 20, 1947 at Westminster Abbey – The wedding was a spark of brightness in an England still being rationed after the war. People came from all over Britain and the Commonwealth, some even sleeping in the street all night just to catch a glimpse of the Princess on her way to Westminster Abbey.

15. Who was chosen to design Princess Elizabeth’s wedding dress?

Norman Hartnell – Norman Hartnell designed much of the Queen Mother’s wardrobe as well as that of the two Princesses. He was also responsible for designing Princess Margaret’s masterpiece of a wedding gown.

16. Upon marriage, Princess Elizabeth acquired an additional title due to the King bestowing a dukedom on Prince Philip. What was that title?

Duchess of Edinburgh – Upon Philip’s marriage, King George VI bestowed upon Prince Philip the title of Duke of Edinburgh. From her marriage until her accession to the throne Princess Elizabeth was also known as Duchess of Edinburgh.

 17. After the wedding, where did Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip make their London home?

Clarence House – They lived at Clarence House from 1947 until Elizabeth became Queen in 1952. The house was then prepared for her mother and sister, Princess Margaret, to move into. Clarence House was the Queen Mother’s home until her death in 2002, after which it was used by Prince Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall as their London base

18. On November 14, 1948 Prince Charles was born. Where did Princess Elizabeth give birth?

Buckingham Palace – The Buhl suite at Buckingham Palace was turned into a delivery room. Some years later when the King needed a lung operation it was converted to a fully equipped operating room.

19. After the birth of Prince Charles, Princess Elizabeth joined Prince Philip abroad to live as a „navy wife.” In what country was he stationed?

Malta – For the first time in her life Princess Elizabeth got a taste of what it was to be „normal”. She was able to go out to lunch with friends, go to the hairdresser and go to the movies. It was said that this was the best time of her life.

20. Princess Elizabeth on her return to England gave birth in 1950 to the Princess Royal. What was the full name of her new daughter?

Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise – Princess Anne, the Princess Royal earned a reputation for being the most hard working of all the Royals. She is named for her grandmother, the Queen Mother, Prince Philip’s mother, Princess Alice and Prince Philip’s great aunt, Louise, Queen of Sweden.

21. Due to the King’s illness, Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip deputized at a state visit for the King and Queen. While abroad the Princess was told that her father, King George VI had died in his sleep and she was now Queen. In what country was she when she was given the news?

Kenya – It was calculated that at the exact moment the Princess became Queen she was actually up a tree watching wild animals through a pair of binoculars.

22. Upon the Queen’s return to Buckingham Palace who was the first person to bow, kiss her hand and proclaim „God Save the Queen?”

Queen Mary – On hearing that the Queen’s plane had landed and she was being driven to Buckingham Palace, Queen Mary asked for a car to drive her to the palace. As she said, „Her old grannie must be the first to kiss her hand.” When the Queen arrived Queen Mary curtseyed, kissed her hand and said „God Save the Queen.”

23. The coronation was scheduled to take place where and on what date?

Westminster Abbey, June 2, 1953 – Westminster Abbey received about 8,000 guests, including prime ministers and heads of state from around the Commonwealth, to attend the coronation. The Queen performed beautifully and the ceremony went on without a hitch.

24. The Queen’s train was very heavy and needed young ladies to help carry it while the Queen walked from place to place during the coronation ceremony. How many maids of honor were needed to carry the train?

Six – The six Maids of Honor chosen were: Lady Mary Baillie-Hamilton, daughter of the 12th Earl of Haddington. Lady Jane Vane-Tempest-Stewart, daughter of 8th Marquess of Londonderry. Lady Jane Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby daughter of 27th Baron Willoughby De Eresby and 3rd Earl of Ancaster and Honourable Nancy Astor. Lady Anne Coke, daughter of the 5th Earl of Leicester. Lady Rosemary Spencer-Churchill, daughter of the 10th Duke of Marlborough. Lady Moyra Hamilton, Daughter of the 4th Duke of Abercorn.

25. Who was the first person at the coronation to kneel before the Queen and proclaim himself her „liege man of life and limb”?

Prince Philip – After making his proclamation of loyalty to his wife, Prince Philip leaned over and kissed her on the cheek.

26. When was Queen Elizabeth II born?

21 April 1926 – Elizabeth II was born Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary at 2.40 am on 21 April 1926 in London at 17 Bruton Street. „The Queen’s Birthday” however, is the day on which the birthday of the monarch of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth countries is officially celebrated. The date of the celebration varies from country to country.She was the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, but she was not born to be the heir to the throne as she was third in line. Her father’s older brother was first in line, next her father, then her. It was only in 1937 when her Uncle Edward abdicated, that she became the next in line, after her father

27. Who is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II?

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh – Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh was born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark on 10 June 1921. He was born into the Greek and Danish Royal Families, but his family was exiled from Greece when he was a small boy. He was educated in Germany and Britain. He joined the British Royal Navy when he was 18 and served during World War II. After the war he renounced his titles and adopted the surname „Mountbatten” from his British maternal grandparents and was known as „Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten”. After his marriage to the then Princess Elizabeth he became His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh. Princess Elizabeth was 13 years of age when she first met 18 year old Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten who was a distant cousin. When they married in 1947 she was 21 years of age.

28. Who was the father of Queen Elizabeth II?

King George VI – Queen Elizabeth II is the oldest daughter of King George VI, who was the second-eldest son of George V, and of Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (who became Queen Elizabeth and then the Queen Mother after the then Princess Elizabeth ascended the throne).

29. How old was Princess Elizabeth when she became Queen Elizabeth II?

25 – During 1951, the health of Princess Elizabeth’s father, King George VI, was in decline. In early 1952 Elizabeth and her husband, Prince Phillip set out to tour Australia and New Zealand via Kenya. On 6 February 1952 they had just returned to Sagana Lodge, in Kenya, where they were staying, after spending a night at Treetops Hotel, when Elizabeth received the news that her father had died. She was immediately proclaimed Queen throughout her realms and she immediately returned to London. The coronation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II took place in the Abbey Church of St Peter, Westminster, on Tuesday 2nd June 1953. More than 8,000 guests attended including Prime Ministers and Heads of State from around the World. After being handed the four symbols of authority – the Orb, the Sceptre, the Rod of Mercy and the Royal Ring of sapphires and rubies – the Archbishop of Canterbury placed St Edward’s Crown on her head. A shout of „God Save the Queen” was heard and gun-salutes were fired as crowds cheered.

30- How many children do Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh have?

4 – Charles Philip Arthur George Windsor – the Prince of Wales – was born on 14 November 1948. Anne Elizabeth Louise Windsor – The Princess Royal – was born on 15 August 1950. Andrew Albert Christian Edward Windsor – The Duke of York – was born on 19 February 1960. Edward Antony Richard Louis Windsor – The Earl of Wessex – was born on 10 March 1964.

31. What is the principal London residence of Queen Elizabeth II?

Buckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace has served as the official London residence of Britain’s sovereigns since 1837 and is the administrative headquarters of the Monarch. Buckingham Palace has 775 rooms which includes 19 state rooms, 52 royal and guest bedrooms, 188 staff bedrooms, 92 offices and 78 bathrooms. The Palace is also the venue for great royal ceremonies, state visits and investitures. More than 50,000 people visit the Palace each year as guests to banquets, lunches, dinners, receptions and the royal garden parties.

32. Who pays a visit to the Queen every Tuesday when she is in London?

The Prime Minister – As Head of State, the Queen maintains close contact with the Prime Minister, with whom she has a weekly audience when she is in London.Over the reign, Her Majesty has given regular Tuesday evening audiences to ten Prime Ministers. They are: Winston Churchill 1951-1955 Anthony Eden 1955-1957 Harold Macmillan 1957-1963 Alec Douglas-Home 1963-1964 Harold Wilson 1964-1970 and 1974-1976 Edward Heath 1970-1974 James Callaghan 1976-1979
Margaret Thatcher 1979-1990 John Major 19990-1997 Tony Blair 1997-2007 Gordon Brown 2007-2010 David Cameron 2010-

33. Probably everybody knows that the Queen’s favourite dog is the Corgi. But do you know the name of the first Corgi that she ever owned?

Susan – The Queen has owned more than 30 corgis during her reign. Her first corgi, Susan, was given to her as a present on her 18th birthday. A good proportion of these have been direct descendants from Susan.

34. Prior to the landing of Apollo 11 on the moon, Queen Elizabeth II (among other world leaders) sent a message of congratulations. What happened to that message?

It was deposited on the moon in a metal container – Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin left mementos on the lunar soil of the Sea of Tranquillity, among which was a tiny silicon disc with microscopic messages of goodwill from 73 world leaders. The disc will last on the lunar surface for thousands of years

35. Technically, what marine creatures are owned by the Queen?

Sturgeons, whales and dolphins – According to a statute from 1324, the Queen still owns the sturgeons, whales and dolphins in the waters around the UK. The statute was made at the time of the reign of King Edward II and states that „Also the King shall have … whales and sturgeons taken in the sea or elsewhere within the realm.” This statute is still valid today and sturgeons, dolphins and whales are recognised as „Fishes Royal.”

36. What was Her Majesty christened?

Elizabeth Alexandra Mary -She was named after her mother (Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother), her paternal great-grandmother (Queen Alexandra) and her paternal grandmother (Queen Mary).

37. Where was she born?

17 Bruton Street, Mayfair, London -17 Bruton Street was her parents’ home until they moved to 145 Piccadilly shortly after her birth. Windsor Castle is the monarch’s country home just outside London. Buckingham Palace is the monarch’s official London residence.

38. What was her sister’s name?

Margaret Rose -As a child, Elizabeth called her sister ‚Bud’ because she said Margaret wasn’t a fully grown rose yet. Anne is the Queen’s daughter, Alexandra is her cousin and Sarah is her niece (Margaret’s daughter).

39. How is she related to Queen Victoria?

Great-great-granddaughter -The genealogy is Queen Victoria, Edward VII, George V, George VI, Elizabeth II.

40. Where does she traditionally spend her summer holiday?

Balmoral Castle -Sandringham House in Norfolk is one of the Queen’s private residences and is where the Royal Family spend their Christmas holidays. The Island of Mustique in the Caribbean was a favourite holiday venue of the late Princess Margaret. Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, is another of the Queen’s private homes and to which the Royal Family retreat every year in August-September. Windsor Castle is an official residence of the Queen just outside of London and is where she spends Easter.

41. In 1957, at the suggestion of her then Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, the Queen honoured her husband with the title ‚Prince’. Now known as Philip Mountbatten, what was Prince Philip called at birth?

Philippos Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg – Fifth in line to the Greek throne, the young Philippos spent his childhood in exile in Britain at the home of his uncle, Louis Mountbatten (formerly Battenberg). During his school years Philippos became Philip, and, prior to his marriage to Elizabeth, Philip relinquished his Greek title and took British citizenship in the name of Mountbatten

42. Greeted with affection and instant recognition wherever she goes, the Queen is the most travelled monarch in history. In October, 1994 she was the first reigning British Monarch ever to set foot in which country?

Russia -On October 17th 1994 the Queen and Prince Philip began a State visit to Russia, where they attended a Banquet at the Kremlin, hosted by President Yeltsin and his wife. During her speech the Queen emphasised Britain’s commitment to a future working together with Russia.

43. Which year of the 1990s did the Queen famously declare to be her ‚annus horribilis’?

1992 – 1992, the fortieth anniversary of her accession, was not a good year for the Queen. It saw the divorce of her daughter, the disintegration of the marriages of two of her sons, with the publishing of both Princess Diana’s ‚Squidgy-gate’ conversations and compromising photographs of the Duchess of York. Part of Windsor Castle was destroyed by fire, and the Queen was forced into agreeing to pay income tax. Not a good year by anyone’s standards!

44. The 6th February, 2002 marked the beginning of Golden Jubilee Year for Queen Elizabeth II. Golden Jubilees are rare occasions for a monarchy. There have only been five such events in British history. The last was Queen Victoria’s in 1887, but whose was the one before that?

George III – In 1810 George III’s 50 year reign was marked with fetes and firework displays, both in Britain and the Colonies. Unfortunately it was around this time that he went permanently insane, and for the remaining ten years of his reign his son ruled as Regent. The other two monarchs to reach their golden jubilees were Henry III in 1266 and Edward III in 1327.

45. In 1972 the Queen and Prince Philip celebrated their silver wedding anniversary. It was also a year of personal sadness, seeing the death of two members of the royal family. One member was the Queen’s cousin, Prince William of Gloucester, who died in a flying accident at the age of 30. Who was the other?

Duke of Windsor – The Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII, died in Paris from lung cancer at the age of 77. Just ten days earlier Queen Elizabeth had paid a final visit to her uncle.

46. At the time of Pope John Paul II’s historic visit to Britain in 1982 British troops were heavily involved in conflict. Where was this taking place?

The Falkland Islands – When the Queen entertained the Pope at Buckingham Palace it was the first papal visit for 450 years. Whilst there he promised to pray for the safe return of Prince Andrew, who, as the pilot of a Sea King helicopter, was serving in the South Atlantic with British troops trying to recover the Falkland Islands from Argentina.

47. As part of the Queen’s Jubilee celebrations a special portfolio of photographs has been commissioned to be displayed at Windsor Castle. Which famous Canadian singer was invited to photograph the Queen and Prince Philip for this exhibition?

Bryan Adams – In 2001, a select group of photographers from Britain and the Commonwealth were invited to Buckingham Palace to ‚snap’ the Queen and her husband. Bryan Adam’s portrait features the royal couple standing at the gated private entrance to the palace. It is not the first time this keen photographer has taken pictures of the Queen. A picture he took of her two years ago was used as part of a fundraising project for breast cancer.

48. Where were the principal homes of the family?

145 Piccadilly and The Royal Lodge – 145 Piccadilly was a 25-room mansion with an electric elevator and a ballroom. It also featured a large glass Victorian dome on the top floor. It was destroyed during the bombing of London. The Royal Lodge was their weekend home in Windsor Park which had been given to them by King George V. It is now being used by Prince Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall.

49. Princess Elizabeth’s nanny was always referred to as „Allah”. What was her real name?

Clara Knight – The daughter of a tenant farmer at the Strathmore’s Hertfordshire estate, Allah, when she was only 17 years old, had been picked by Lady Strathmore to take care of her new baby Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon and in turn her younger brother, David Bowes-Lyon. When Elizabeth and David outgrew the need for a nanny, Allah cared for the Strathmore grandchildren until rising to the top of the heap of nannydom by becoming a royal nanny.

50. Allah had an assistant nanny. This Scottish woman stayed with the Princess and then the Queen until her death. What was her name?

Margaret Macdonald – Known as „Bobo” Miss MacDonald rose to the position of the Queen’s Dresser. She was one of the few people that the Queen trusted completely. Although she had been offered thousands of dollars to „tell all”, she always sent the publishers and reporters packing. She was a great loss to the Queen when she died during the 1990s

51. When Princess Elizabeth was six years old a governess was engaged to begin her education. What was her name?

Marion Crawford – „Crawfie” as she was known stayed with the family for 18 years. She then was ostracized forever when she wrote the book „The Little Princesses” which became a best seller and was the first „tell all” book about the Royal Family. From then on, any servant who wrote a book was spoken of as „doing a Crawfie.”

52. Princess Elizabeth had lots of activities that she enjoyed. What, according to her governess, was her favorite?

Horseback riding – According to her governess, Lilibet was so taken with horses and horseback riding that anyone wanting to give her a Christmas gift just picked the latest horse book to give her. To this day horses are the Queen’s great passion. She was good at swimming and a dutiful Girl Guide. however, sewing was not one of her strong points

53. In 1936 King Edward VIII abdicated his throne to marry Wallis Simpson. At what exact moment did Princess Elizabeth’s father become King George VI?

The moment Edward VIII signed the Instrument of Abdication – With the stroke of his pen King Edward VIII gave up his position and his brother became King. The family then moved out of their beautiful London home and into Buckingham Palace.

54. At what age, and under what circumstances, did Princess Elizabeth meet her future husband, Prince Philip, for the first time?

She was 13 and met him at Dartmouth Naval College – The King and Queen accompanied by the two princesses were on an official visit to Royal Dartmouth Naval College. Philip was invited to lunch and Lilibet was very taken with him. She never wanted any other man but Philip. They celebrated their diamond wedding anniversary (60 years) in 2007.

55. At the outbreak of World War II the King and Queen let it be known that they were going to remain at Buckingham Palace for the duration of the war. It was also announced that their two daughters had been evacuated to a „house in the country”. To which house were they evacuated?

Windsor Castle – The two princesses remained at Windsor for the entire war. The crown jewels were stored there, wrapped in newspaper and in large crates! Buckingham Palace had been bombed nine times during the blitz. As all their windows were broken, the palace was too dangerous for them for them to sleep there.

56. What did Prince Philip have to give up in order to become a British citizen and marry Elizabeth?

His title of Prince of Greece – Before Prince Philip could marry Elizabeth he had to be a British subject (citizen) and this involved giving up his title of Prince of Greece. After he had done this and become a British subject (citizen) the government found out that he had not in fact needed to do that. Because he was a direct desendant of Queen Victoria he was already a British subject. A law passed during Queen Victoria’s reign said that any direct descendant of hers would be born a British subject no matter where they are born or raised.

57. What two tragic things happened in 2002, the year of the Queen’s Golden Jubilee?

The deaths of Princess Margaret and Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother – Both Princess Margaret, the Queen’s sister, and Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother died in 2002. They died within weeks of one another.

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