Uczniowie często denerwują się, że wyrazy angielskie mają wiele znaczeń i że czasami definicje, których sumiennie wyuczyli się w szkole podstawowej znacznie różnią się od tych, które poznają w gimnazjum. Postanowiłem więc sprawdzić, które angielskie słowo ma tych znaczeń najwięcej. Wynik przeszedł moje najśmielsze oczekiwania. Jak podaje słownik języka angielskiego wydawnictwa Oxford (the Oxford English Dictionary) najwięcej definicji można odnaleść przy słowie set – jest ich 464. Imponujący wynik.
Oto jak wygląda pierwsza dziesiątka tego zestawienia:
- SET – 464 definicje
- RUN – 396
- GO – 368
- TAKE – 343
- STAND – 334
- GET – 289
- TURN – 288
- PUT – 268
- FALL – 264
- STRIKE – 250
Kilka definicji słowa set, znalezionych na stronie http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/
verb (sets, setting; past and past participle set)
- 1 [with object and usually with adverbial] put, lay, or stand (something) in a specified place or position:Delaney set the mug of tea downCatherine set a chair by the bed
- (be set) be situated or fixed in a specified place or position:the village was set among olive groves on a hill
- represent (a story, play, film, or scene) as happening at a specified time or in a specified place:a private-eye novel set in Berlin
- mount a precious stone in (something, typically a piece of jewellery):a bracelet set with emeralds
- mount (a precious stone) in something:a huge square-cut emerald set in platinum
- Printing arrange (type) as required:the compositors refused to set the type for an editorial
- Printing arrange the type for (a piece of text):article headings will be set in Times fourteen point
- prepare (a table) for a meal by placing cutlery, crockery, etc. on it in their proper places:she set the table and began breakfast
- (set something to) provide (music) so that a written work can be produced in a musical form:a form of poetry which can be set to music
- Bell-ringing move (a bell) so that it rests in an inverted position ready for ringing:the ringer gradually increases the swing until the bell is balanced or set
- cause (a hen) to sit on eggs:you had to set the clucking hens
- put (a seed or plant) in the ground to grow:I set the plants in shallow hollows to facilitate watering
- Sailing put (a sail) up in position to catch the wind:a safe distance from shore all sails were set
- 2 [with object and usually with adverbial] put or bring into a specified state:the Home Secretary set in motion a review of the law[with object and complement]:the hostages were set free
- [with object and present participle] cause (someone or something) to start doing something:the incident set me thinking
- [with object and infinitive] instruct (someone) to do something:he’ll set a man to watch you
- give someone (a task or test) to do:schools will begin to set mock tests[with two objects]:the problem we have been set
- establish as (an example) for others to follow, copy, or try to achieve:the scheme sets a precedent for other companies
- establish (a record):his time in the 25 m freestyle set a national record
- decide on and announce:they set a date for a full hearing at the end of February
- fix (a price, value, or limit) on something:the unions had set a limit on the size of the temporary workforce
- 3 [with object] adjust (a clock or watch), typically to show the right time:set your watch immediately to local time at your destinationfigurativeto revert to an old style would be to try to set back the clock and deny the progress which had been made
- adjust (an alarm clock) to sound at the required time:I usually set my alarm clock for eight
- adjust (a device) so that it performs a particular operation:you have to be careful not to set the volume too high
- Electronics cause (a binary device) to enter the state representing the numeral 1.
- 4 [no object] harden into a solid or semi-solid state:cook for a further thirty-five minutes until the filling has set
- [with object] arrange (the hair) while damp so that it dries in the required style:she had set her hair on small rollers
- [with object] put parts of (a broken or dislocated bone or limb) into the correct position for healing:he lined up the bones and set the arm
- (of a bone) be restored to its normal condition by knitting together again after being broken:children’s bones soon set
- (with reference to a person’s face) assume or cause to assume a fixed or rigid expression:[no object]:her features never set into a civil parade of attention[with object]:Travis’s face was set as he looked up
- (of a hunting dog) adopt a rigid attitude indicating the presence of game.
- 5 [no object] (of the sun, moon, or another celestial body) appear to move towards and below the earth’s horizon as the earth rotates:the sun was setting and a warm red glow filled the sky
- 6 [no object, with adverbial of direction] (of a tide or current) take or have a specified direction or course:a fair tide can be carried well past Land’s End before the stream sets to the north
- 7 [with object] chiefly North American start (a fire):the school had been broken into and the fire had been set
- 8 [with object] (of blossom or a tree) form into or produce (fruit):wait until first flowers have set fruit before planting out the peppers
- [no object] (of fruit) develop from blossom:once fruits have set, feed weekly with a high potash liquid tomato fertilizer
- (of a plant) produce (seed):the herb has flowered and started to set seed
- 9 [no object] dialect sit:the rest of them people just set there goggle-eyed for a minute
set one’s heart (or hopes) on
have a strong desire for or to do:she had her heart set on going to university
hoist the sails of a boat.
begin a voyage:tomorrow we set sail for France
set one’s teeth
clench one’s teeth together.
become resolute:they have set their teeth against a change which would undermine their prospects of forming a government
set the wheels in motion
do something to begin a process or put a plan into action:Jane set the wheels in motion to find somewhere small to live
- 1start doing something with vigour or determination:it would be far better to admit the problem openly and set about tackling it
- 2British informal attack (someone):the policeman began to set about him with his truncheon
set someone against
cause someone to be in opposition or conflict with:he hadn’t meant any harm but his few words had set her against him
set something against
offset something against:wives’ allowances can henceforth be set against investment income
set someone apart
give someone an air of unusual superiority:his ability and self-effacing modesty have set him apart
set something apart
separate something and keep it for a special purpose:there were books and rooms set apart as libraries
set something aside
- 1save or keep something, typically money or time, for a particular purpose:the bank expected to set aside about $700 million for restructuring
- remove land from agricultural production:with 15 per cent of land set aside, cereal production will fall
- 2annul a legal decision or process:he applied by summons to set aside the fourth party notice served on them
set someone/thing back
- 1delay or impede the progress of someone or something:this incident undoubtedly set back research
- 2 informal (of a purchase) cost someone a particular amount of money:that must have set you back a bit
set something by
archaic or US save something for future use.
set someone down
British stop and allow someone to alight from a vehicle:we will set you down at your gates
set something down
record something in writing:that evening he set down his thoughts in brief notes
establish something as a rule or principle to be followed:the Association set down codes of practice for all members to comply with
set forth (or forward)
archaic begin a journey:we set forth to enjoy the countryside
set something forth
state or describe something in writing or speech:the principles and aims set forth in the Social Charter
(of something unpleasant or unwelcome) begin and seem likely to continue:tables should be treated with preservative before the bad weather sets in
set something in
insert something, especially a sleeve, into a garment.
begin a journey:they set off together in the small car
set someone off
cause someone to start doing something, especially laughing or talking:anything will set him off laughing
set something off
- 1detonate a bomb:police do not know how the bomb was set off
- 2serve as decorative embellishment to:a pink carnation set off nicely by a red bow tie and cream shirt
- cause an alarm to go off:a smoke detector set off an alarm soon after midnight
- cause a series of things to occur:the fear is that this could set off a chain reaction in other financial markets
set something off against
another way of saying set something against above.
set on (or upon)
attack (someone) violently:he and his friends were set upon by a gang
set someone/thing on (or upon)
cause or urge a person or animal to attack:I was asked to leave and threatened with having dogs set upon me
begin a journey.
aim or intend to do something:she drew up a grandiose statement of what her organization should set out to achieve
set something out
arrange or display something in a particular order or position:they had a picnic by the river where there was a jetty and rustic tables and chairs set out
present information or ideas in a well-ordered way in writing or speech:this chapter sets out the debate surrounding pluralism
- 1begin doing something vigorously:she set to with bleach and scouring pads to render the vases spotless
- 2(of a dancer) acknowledge another dancer, typically one’s partner, using the steps prescribed:the gentleman sets to and turns with the lady on his left hand
set someone up
- 1establish someone in a particular capacity or role:his father set him up in business
- 2restore or enhance the health of someone:after my operation the doctor recommended a cruise to set me up again
- 3 informal make an innocent person appear guilty of something:suppose Lorton had set him up for Newley’s murder?
set something up
- 1place or erect something in position:police set up a roadblock on Lower Thames Street
- 2establish a business, institution, or other organization:she set up the business with a £4,000 bank loanclergy have a prime role in setting up schools
- make the arrangements necessary for something:he asked if I would like him to set up a meeting with the president
- 3begin making a loud sound:a colony of monkeys had set up a racket in the canopy
set oneself up as
establish oneself in (a particular occupation):she set herself up as an acupuncturist in Leamington
claim to be or act like a specified kind of person:he set himself up as a crusader for higher press and broadcasting standards
- 1a group or collection of things that belong together or resemble one another or are usually found together:a set of false teetha new cell with two sets of chromosomesa spare set of clothes
- 2 [in singular] the way in which something is set, disposed, or positioned:the shape and set of the eyes
- 3a radio or television receiver:a TV set
- 4a collection of scenery, stage furniture, and other articles used for a particular scene in a play or film.
- the place or area in which filming is taking place or a play is performed:the magazine has interviews on set with top directors
- 5an arrangement of the hair when damp so that it dries in the required style:a shampoo and set
- 6a cutting, young plant, or bulb used in the propagation of new plants.
- 7the last coat of plaster on a wall.
- 8 Printing the amount of spacing in type controlling the distance between letters.
- 9variant spelling of sett.
- 10 Snookeranother term for plant (sense 4 of the noun).
- a collection of implements, containers, or other objects customarily used together:a fondue set
- a group of people with common interests or occupations or of similar social status:it was a fashionable haunt of the literary set
- British a group of pupils or students of the same average ability in a particular subject who are taught together:the policy of allocating pupils to mathematics sets
- (in tennis, darts, and other games) a group of games counting as a unit towards a match:he took the first set 6-3
- (in jazz or popular music) a sequence of songs or pieces performed together and constituting or forming part of a live show or recording:a short four-song set
- a group of people making up the required number for a square dance or similar country dance.
- a fixed number of repetitions of a particular bodybuilding exercise:making sure that you perform 3 sets of at least 8 repetitions
- Mathematics & Logic a collection of distinct entities regarded as a unit, being either individually specified or (more usually) satisfying specified conditions:the set of all positive integers
- the posture or attitude of a part of the body, typically in relation to the impression this gives of a person’s feelings or intentions:the determined set of her upper torso
- short for mindset.he’s got this set against social psychology
- Australian/NZ informal a grudge:most of them hear a thing or two and then get a set on you
- the flow of a current or tide in a particular direction:the rudder kept the dinghy straight against the set of the tide
- Bell-ringing the inverted position of a bell when it is ready for ringing.
- (also dead set) a setter’s pointing in the presence of game.
- the inclination of the teeth of a saw in alternate directions.
- a warp or bend in wood, metal, or another material caused by continued strain or pressure.
- a young fruit that has just formed.
- the width of a piece of type.
verb (sets, setting, setted)
[with object] British
- group (pupils or students) in sets according to ability.
make a dead set at
British make a determined attempt to win the affections of:she had made a dead set at a number of other men
[by association with hunting (see dead set above)]
- 1fixed or arranged in advance:try to feed the puppy at set times each day
- 2 [predic.] ready, prepared, or likely to do something:‘All set for tonight?’ he asked[with infinitive]:water costs look set to increase
- (set against) firmly opposed to:last night you were dead set against the idea
- (set on) determined to do (something):he’s set on marrying that girl
- (of a view or habit) unlikely to change:I’ve been on my own a long time and I’m rather set in my ways
- (of a person’s expression) held for an unnaturally long time without changing, typically as a reflection of determination:Iris was staring in front of her with a set expression
- (of a meal or menu in a restaurant) offered at a fixed price with a limited choice of dishes:a three-course set menu
- (of a book) prescribed for study as part of a particular course or for an examination:his book is a set text which has influenced countless schoolchildren
- having a conventional or predetermined wording; formulaic:witnesses often delivered their testimony according to a set speech